Measurement of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in countries with high HIV prevalence in women of reproductive age

This document outlines the fundamentals of PMTCT impact determination and provides considerations for development of pragmatic, streamlined and resource-efficient systems for MTCT estimate generation in high burden settings. The guidance attempts to acknowledge the current reality of PMTCT programme data and the need for reliable MTCT rates while also encouraging a forward-looking approach towards sustainable PMTCT programme data improvements.

Note that this document is intended for countries in sub-Saharan Africa with a high prevalence of HIV among women of reproductive age. Although many of the underlying principles are relevant to settings with a lower burden of HIV, the guidance is not targeted for those programmes.

The tools in appendix 2 can be accessed here.

Non-contributory Social Protection and Adolescents in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries: A review of government programming and impacts

This working paper from UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti makes the case for investing in social protection efforts for adolescents. Reviewing governmental programmes, the paper examines whether and how current non-contributory social protection programmes are adolescent sensitive, and what their impacts are on adolescents.

Cash transfers: Past, present and future. Evidence and lessons learned from the Transfer Project

Building on previous summaries, this brief summarizes the current evidence and lessons learned from the Transfer Project after more than a decade of research on cash transfers in sub-Saharan Africa.

Since 2009, the Transfer Project has generated rigorous evidence on the impacts of cash transfers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and has supported their expansion. It aims to provide evidence on the effectiveness of cash transfer programmes, inform the development and design of cash transfer policy and programmes, and promote learning across SSA on the design and implementation of research and evaluations on cash transfers. The Transfer Project is a collaborative network comprising UNICEF (Innocenti, Regional and Country Offices), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, national governments and researchers. 

Mental Health and Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence among Adolescents Living with HIV 

Building on research findings and effective interventions in low-and middle-income countries, this policy brief identifies key risks, including bullying and stigma, and facilitators, such as positive parenting and social support, that influence pathways between mental health and HIV outcomes for adolescents. It is part of a broader series that aims to support the translation of research into improved adolescent sexual reproductive health and HIV programming.

Good mental health and psychosocial wellbeing is especially important for adolescents during their transition to adulthood. It can support resilience and help initiate healthy behaviours that shape long-term positive health outcomes. Evidence shows that adolescents living with HIV are more likely to experience mental health challenges compared to their peers who do not have HIV. Poor mental health outcomes have been linked to low rates of adherence to life-saving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and retention in care.  Understanding risk factors and protective factors that influence mental health and ART adherence amongst adolescents is critical for effective programming. Within eastern and southern Africa, there is great momentum to identify and scale-up interventions that address mental health and improve treatment, care and support for adolescents living with HIV.


Safeguarding the future: Giving priority to the needs of adolescent and young mothers living with HIV

This technical service delivery brief details core programmatic examples from across sub-Saharan Africa and key multi-sectoral strategic actions that demonstrate how governments, health facilities, social services, communities, families and adolescent and young mothers are working together to bridge the gap between adolescent and adult-focused HIV and maternal health services. The programme examples provided serve to highlight potential and ongoing learnings in countries. 

The technical brief, developed by UNICEF and WHO, builds upon a learning session convened in 2019 by WHO and Coalition for Children Affected by AIDS. The session convened scientific and programmatic experts to consolidate the evidence on adolescent mothers and their children and to deliberate on the multiple-level changes needed to improve their outcomes. Aimed at HIV programme managers in health ministries and other adolescent-linked line ministries, the brief informs and supports global dialogue and accelerates action in prioritizing services and support for adolescent and young mothers living with HIV.


Statistical Update and Report for World AIDS Day 2021



UNICEF's 2021 World AIDS Day report provides global and regional statistical updates on children, adolescents and pregnant women. It further provides a brief history of the HIV epidemic and response for children together with a series of human interest stories that shine light on inequalities faced by children and adolescents, especially in HIV treatment and prevention services.

Flip through the 2021 World AIDS Day Spotlight Photo Report, which amplifies the voices of the most marginalized children, adolescents and young mothers along the theme of stolen childhood, lost adolescence